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**The Straw & The Camel's Back- The Nov. 1888 Murray's Magazine Article**

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  • **The Straw & The Camel's Back- The Nov. 1888 Murray's Magazine Article**

    Back in late July, it dawned on me I couldn't find a copy of the November 1888 Murray's Magazine article penned by Sir Charles Warren.
    This article which, when published, resulted in Warren resigning from his position as Commissioner of The Metropolitan Police.
    As far as I have been able to determine, the article has never been transcribed and posted in either major Ripper repository.

    I eventually located the article on Google and transcribed it...and then contacted Paul Colwell, who graciously organized the material into a nice PDF.
    I'll have the PDF soon, for those interested.


    If people would like to discuss the article ( Warren was aware of the claim that the Met police were basically soldiers doing drills 24 hours a day and corrects this assumption ), please use the thread I'll put a link to in the last post of this closed thread.



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  • #2
    Part One

    M U R R A Y ' S M A G A Z I N E

    THE POLICE OF THE METROPOLIS
    - NOVEMBER 1888-
    *************************

    London has for many years past been subject to the sinister influence of a mob stirred up into spasmodic action by restless demagogues. Their operations have exercised undue influence on the Government of the day, and year by year the Metropolis of our Empire has become more and more prone to dangerous panics, which, if permitted to increase in intensity, must certainly lead to disastrous consequences.

    If the citizens could only keep their heads cool and support the police in the legitimate execution of their duty there is nothing to be dreaded from the most powerful combination of the mob, but all peace and order will be imperilled if the citizens continue intermittently to join with the mob in embarrassing those who are responsible for the security of the Metropolis.

    There are over 12, 000 police in London, deducting those employed at Dockyards, & it is probable that these might be readily reduced to 10, 000 if the inhabitants would do their duty as citizens and uphold the law. They have, however, from long custom extending over more than a hundred years, acquired an unreasoning habit of cavilling and finding fault on every occasion without making any due enquiry, and very frequently on incorrect information, and they are actually doing their best to hand their security and property to the mercy of those who wish to share the latter with them.

    Formerly, and even as late as 1848, many citizens of good position may have had good reasons to sympathize with the general object of the Chartists and other reformers while condemning their mode of procedure. But now that reform after reform has put the Government into the hands of the people, further changes may be left with confidence in their hands, and it is curious to see both influential persons still fostering insurrection, which must, if successful, end in their ruin, and the people endeavouring to hinder the action of the laws which they themselves have put into operation.

    It is to be deplored that successive Governments have not had the courage to make a stand against the more noisy section of the people representing a small minority, and have given way before tumultuous proceedings which have exercised a terrorism over peaceful and law-abiding citizens, and it is still more to be regretted that ex-Ministers, while in opposition, have not hesitated to embarrass those in power by smiling on the insurgent mob. If we search history during the present century, we shall find that down to the year 1886 the mob or rabble exercised a decided influence over the destinies of London. In the spring of that year it over leaped all bounds, and London was subject to a three days' reign of abject terror, pitiful and ridiculous, which only terminated because the mob was so completely astonished and taken aback at its own success, that it was not prepared to continue its depredations.
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    • #3
      Part Two

      Since then the mob has realized its power, and has made preparation for further aggression, while corresponding arrangements have been made by the Executive to preserve the peace. London in the meantime has become more hysterical and liable to panic, and the barometer of public feeling and opinion, so far as the daily journals put them forth, has oscillated violently from period to period, and there seems no inclination for it to settle down to "set fair".

      Each interval of panic is succeeded by one of self-complacency and congratulation, and these oscillations can, to a great extent, be gauged by the estimate in which the Metropolitan Police are held. If they praised up and petted, we may be sure that the public scent danger in the air, and that a panic is imminent ; while if, on the other hand, they are abused and vilified, we may take it for granted that the public feel quite secure. This alternate blaming and praising has a most detrimental effect upon the efficiency and discipline of the police force, and is probably equivalent to the loss of the services of a large percentage of police constables.

      After the revulsion consequent on the riots of February 1886, we find that there was nothing bad enough to say about the police for some months ; but during the autumn, rumours of approaching disorder caused the police to be spoken of as models of propriety, until the difficulties surrounding the Lord Mayor's procession were surmounted, when the police became again subject to attack, until the spring of 1887, when the disturbances of the Socialists alarmed the minds of many. Then there were severe misgivings as to the possibility of keeping order during the Jubilee, and the constable, to his astonishment, found himself to be considered decidedly a good fellow. But no sooner had the admirable conduct of the police contributed largely to the wonderful success of the Jubilee proceedings, than the public turned round upon them with unexampled fury, and attacked them in the most unworthy manner. So violent was this attack and slander, that it actually re-acted forcibly upon the mob, grown quiet since the previous spring, and they, thinking the police would now have no spirit to resist them, commenced proceedings which, but for vigorous measures, might have resulted in the ruin of London.

      Before it was quite too late, however, a portion of the public saw the danger a-head, and rapidly rallied to the support of the police, and the clearing of Trafalgar Square was successfully accomplished without loss of life or destruction of property.
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      • #4
        Part Three

        Thus almost for the first time during this century the mob failed in its ascendancy over London and in coercing the Government, but it would be puerile to ignore the fact that there will be again efforts made to remove the destinies of the Metropolis out of the hands of the people into those of the mob.

        Gradually peace has been restored, and security prevailing during the summer of 1888, signs were not wanting that another attack on the police was at hand. But this time it was to be of a more insidious character, being directed not so much against the individual police constable, as against the police administration, and if successful, it would effectually cripple the power of the Executive to keep peace and order on the approaching Lord Mayor's Day. Fortunately, however. a note of alarm has been sounded in time, and citizens are again beginning to rally round the side of law and order.


        It should, however, be fully realized that this violently fickle conduct of the public is very dangerous to the preservation of peace. It is straining the administration of the police, it is endangering the discipline of the force, it is encouraging the mob to disorder and rapine, and it very much increases the police rate.

        It may readily be conjectured for what purpose these desperate efforts have recently been made to vilify the police administration, and to circulate exaggerated and incorrect statements concerning its internal arrangements. The object of this article is to put a few leading facts before the public, which may possibly clear away many of the misconceptions with which the subject of police has been dexterously surrounded ; and it can be understood, from examples now given, that there may be a vast number of other points on which most inaccurate statements have been made, but on which, for police purposes, it may be better to say little or nothing, as it is probable that one of the objects of the slanders at present being scattered is to draw some reply which will reveal the internal working of the police administration in a manner which may be useful to those who are acting contrary to law.

        The whole safety and security of London depends, in a great measure, upon the efficiency of the uniform police constable acting with the support of the citizen, the constable being kept up to the mark, and yet prevented going beyond the law by the Commissioner of Police and the Police Magistrates and Judges. And it cannot be too strongly impressed upon the mind, at a time when the detective efficiency of the police is being called into question, that it has been held as a police maxim that "the primary object of an efficient police is the prevention of crime
        , the next that of detection and punishment of offenders if crime is committed. To these ends all the efforts of the police must be directed. The protection of life and property. the preservation of public tranquility, and the absence of crime, will alone prove whether those efforts have been successful, and whether the objects for which the police were appointed have been attained."

        The police statistics can compare most favourably with any other city in Europe, and crimes of a heavy nature, such as murder and burglary, are very rare.

        The office of constable or peace officer dates back to the Saxon period.

        Two constables or peace officers were originally chosen in every Hundred, and they were permitted to exercise their offices by deputy. Their actual powers of arrest in cases of felony are very slightly greater than those of any other citizen : the principal difference being that while any person can arrest any one whom he reasonably suspects of having committed a felony, the peace officer can arrest on the same grounds, whether a felony has in fact been committed or not.
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        • #5
          Part Four

          The word 'police' has not until quite recent years necessarily included the police force, but only the legislative arrangement under which the magistrates were enabled to prevent crimes and misdemeanours. The term, 'police' was introduced from the Continent and appears to have been first used in 1787, when paid constables were appointed in Ireland.

          The police system was very slowly developed in England and was first introduced in London in 1792, when seven police offices were established, with twenty-one stipendiary justices. In each of these offices six paid constables were appointed, and with the eight at Bow Street and sixty-seven patrols, gave a force of 117. The parochial constables numbered 883. So that the entire force amounted to 1,000.

          In addition were 2,044 beadles, watchmen , and patrols, and thus the entire civil force of the Metropolis made an aggregate of 3144 men, the population at that time being estimated at 1,250,000 persons.

          Notwithstanding this improved system of police, it was ascertained, even after it had been in operation for several years, that the loss in London by petty thefts alone amounted to 710,000, and that the aggregate value of the depredations committed on public and private property yearly amounted to 2,100,000, and this failure of police was attributed in a great measure to the disintegrated state of the Police force in the Metropolis, occasioned, under the parish system, by a number of jurisdictions, clashing one with another, and preventing the full operations of a system by which the energy and vigilance of the police office might be properly utilized. ( In 1887, with a population of 5,476,000, the loss was 97,000 .)

          By degrees the system of paid constables acting under the Magistrates developed more and more, until the necessity arose for a centralization of the administration of the whole force of constables in connection with the Executive, as distinct from the judicial duties of the Stipendiary Magistrates, and it was determined to appoint a ninth office of police with two Justices of the Peace, who were to direct and control the whole force of constables.

          This is probably the most important step ever taken in the interest of Justice, the judicial functions remaining with the eight offices of police in London, while the administrative functions were placed under the Westminster or Scotland Yard Office of Police, specially appointed for the purpose. There can be little doubt that the great confidence which is reposed in the London Magistracy and in the Metropolitan Police is due to this separation. The constable ( not the Commissioner, let it be observed ) has under the Police and other Acts enormous powers which are willingly accorded to him, because there is every confidence that if he were to abuse them he would be punished by the magistrate. The report of the Constabulary Force Commission. 1839, specially refers to this subject, and they quote the following striking remarks of a Manchester Stipendiary Magistrate--

          " I think that all decisions of magistrates in cases where policemen have been concerned, are much more satisfactory, and will be far better recieved than they would be, if that force were supposed to be under their control.

          "One of the first and most important steps in the improvement of the Metropolitan Police consisted of the separation of these functions, and it will be seen from the evidence of the most experienced professional magistrates, delivered before the recent Committee of the House of Commons, and of the unanimous opinion of the Committee, that the completion of the separation is essential to the completion of the improvement."
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          • #6
            Page Five

            The Scotland Yard Office of Police was established by Sir Robert Peel in the year 1829, which, acting under the immediate authority of the Secretary of State, should direct and control the whole system of Metropolitan Police ; two Justices of the Peace being appointed under the Sign Manual to execute the duties of Justices of the Peace at the said office, and within the limits of the Metropolitan Police district for the preservation of peace, the prevention fo crime, the detection and removal of offenders, and for carrying into execution the purposes of the Metropolitan Police Act. The Justices, however, cannot act any Court of General or Quarter Sessions, or in any matter out of Sessions, except those above mentioned.

            In 1839 an Act was passed for further improving the Metropolitan Police, and in it the two Justices of the Peace of Scotland Yard were first termed Commissioners of Police.

            In 1856, an Act was passed appointing but one Commissioner of Police in lieu of the two Justices or Commissioners, to be styled 'The Commissioner Of Police Of The Metropolis, " and stating that the duties and powers of the Commissioners of Police were to be performed by the sole Commissioner, and all enactments having reference to the Commissioners of Police were to be applicable to the said Commissioner of Police. At the same time two Assistant-Commissioners of Police were established, who, under the superintendence and control of the Commissioner, should perform such acts and duties in execution of the Act relating to the police as may from time to time be directed by orders and regulations made by the Commissioner with the approbation of the Secretary of State.

            The Commissioner of Police, as a Justice of the Peace, is also given statutory power to furnish the Police Magistrates with a report on matters with reference to the Act for regulating their Courts, and to the Police of the Metropolis, and such report is to be considered by the Magistrates.

            In 1884 an Act was passed establishing an additional or third Assistant-Commissioner, subject to the same regulations as the first two. This additional Assistant-Commissioner was appointed to enable the Commissioner to control the Criminal Investigative Branch.

            It may be interesting to mention in a few words some of the principal statutory duties which devolve on the Commissioner in addition to his primary duties of preserving the peace, preventing crime, and detecting and committing offenders.

            The Commissioner has special power under the Metropolitan Streets Act, 1867, both as regards the general limits extending to six miles from Charing Cross, as regards special limits, within which, with the approval of the Secretary of State, he is empowered to declare any street which is within the general limits.

            Within those special limits he can make regulations as to routes to be observed by vehicles, and persons riding or driving, and taking up and setting down of passengers of stage carriages. The loading of coal and casks, and carriage of timber and heavy goods can be prohibited during certain hours.

            When the general limit the duties are manifold. He can prohibit scavenging and driving of cattle between 10 A.M. and 7 P. M. ; direct dogs to be muzzled and stray dogs, after they have been in his possession three days, to be sold ; to license shoe blacks and messengers and fix their stations. No picture or placards ( except newspapers ) can be carried through the streets, or distributed without his permission, as as to coster mongers there are special regulations.

            He makes regulations for preventing obstructions in the streets during public processions and rejoicings or illuminations, and for keeping order near places of public resort. He regulates the routes and conduct of persons driving carts and carriages, cattle and animals, during the hours of divine service, on special holidays, or in any case where the streets or thoroughfares may be thronged.
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            • #7
              Page Six

              He has also the power to make regulations for maintaining order and securing safety of the public on the River Thames during regattas, boat-races, & etc.

              He authorizes the inspection of premises or steam-ships, to which the provisions of the Smoke Nuisance Act apply.

              He grants licenses for cabs and omnibuses, and has custody of the property left in public carriages, and determines the ownership and the awards to drivers and conductors.

              He has power to order watch-boxes to be put on highways.

              He is the local authority ; and may place restrictions on all dogs not being under control of any person, should a mad dog be found within his jurisdiction.

              He can authorize a Superintendent to enter a house, when there are good grounds for believing it to be used as a common gaming house or as a betting house. He has power to direct summonses to owners or occupiers of ground upon which fairs are held without legal authority.

              He is the local authority for exemption orders as to houses on special occasions under the Licensing Act, 1871.

              The enforcement of regulations of local authorities under the Contagious Diseases ( Animals ) Act, is carried out by the Police Force under the Commissioner's direction.

              He controls the execution of the Common Lodging House Act ; grants certificates to peddlers and chimney sweeps ; appoints the standings for hackney carriages.
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              • #8
                Page Seven

                Many of the subjects above enumerated do not pertain to police duties, and have probably been placed upon the police because no other department was considered able to execute them better. But now that a Local Government for London has been established and an effort will be made to place the police directly under the County Council, it is questionable whether it might not be desirable to make an experiment as a preliminary measure and give over to the Council such duties as are under the Smoke Act, the inspection of common lodging houses, the appointment of hackney carriage standings, the licensing of public carriages, the Lost Property Office, the duties connected with hawkers, peddlers, shoe-blacks, and messengers.

                The Commissioner issues the warrants for the Police Rate, and directs the overseers to pay the amount into the Bank of England to the account of the Receiver.

                No police application for summons can be applied for to a magistrate without the Commissioner's approval.

                The Police Fund is not intended to bear the cost of prosecutions and consequently they are not instituted by the Commissioner except indirectly. In certain matters the Commissioner applies to the Public Prosecutor ; in other matters private persons are bound over to prosecute. In the case of disorderly houses, the parish vestry prosecutes.

                The Commissioner is invested with special powers in regard to crime. He keeps the London Register of convicted criminals, and carries out the law regarding those who have been convicted within seven years of the expiration of their sentence. He has also the administration of the Extradition Acts.

                In order to carry out these multifarious duties with an efficient police force, the three Assistant -Commissioners have handed over to them distinct duties, viz :

                (a.) The administration and discipline of the whole Police Force.
                (b.) Civil business and matters connected with lands, buildings, stores and provisions.
                (c.) Criminal investigation

                In 1874, a Legal Adviser to the Commissioner of great professional experience and legal knowledge was appointed ; he continued in office until 1887 ; since his death the post has not been filled up and the greater portion of his work devolves directly upon the Commissioner.

                On account of the jealousy of a section of the public shown to the Metropolitan Police from its establishment in 1829, no attempt was made to form any Detective or Criminal Investigation Branch until 1842, when a few of the uniform branch were detached for this purpose. These were gradually increased in numbers and it became the practice, though no fixed rule was in force to recruit their ranks from the uniform police by placing them in plain clothes for a period of probation. This system continued up to 1878, when owing to a want of supervision over some of the detectives, a Commission was appointed to report on the subject, resulting in the appointment of a Director of Criminal Investigation. It was clearly intended that he should be subordinate to the Commissioner of Police, and every one who knows anything of police duties must be aware that it was quite impracticable for police work to be done efficiently under two heads, the one independent of the other.
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                • #9
                  Page Eight

                  It is however stated in the Police Code published by the late Director that the whole detective establishment was under his absolute control. However this might have been in practice, it was not so under the law, the Commissioner of Police alone being responsible for the Criminal Administration. A variety of difficulties, which were successfully put right, occurred, and it was considered in the police that the change had not improved the detective service, and that on the other hand the uniform police had become less successful in preventing and detecting crime. Such an anomalous condition of affairs could not long continue, and in 1884 the appointment by Act of Parliament, to act under the control and supervision of the Commissioner, and he was given charge of the Criminal Investigations. No change was made in the method of enrolling members for the detective service, but some few candidates have been admitted direct and a great number examined and rejected. Of those admitted, few if any have been found qualified to remain in the detective service. It seems therefore that although the Criminal Investigation Branch is open to recieve any qualified person direct as a general rule no persons for some years past have presented themselves sufficiently qualified to remain. And there are indications of the advantages of a previous police training in the uniform branch, in the fact that the most successful private detectives at present in the country are those who have formerly been in and originally trained in the uniform branch.

                  It will be seen on reference to the Parliamentary reports that a portion of the detective force is employed in the Commissioner's Office as a Central Office Staff, while a portion forms part of each division acting directly under the Superintendent who takes his directions from the Assistant-Commissioner for Criminal matters in precisely the same manner as he takes them from the two other Civil Commissioners for Administrative and Civil business.

                  The great aim of the present system is to keep up the most cordial relations between the uniform branch and detective service consistent with efficiency in both branches.
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                  • #10
                    Page Nine

                    The genius of the English race does not lend itself to elaborate detective operations similar to those said to be practiced on the Continent. The free institutions of this country are happily quite against any natural training of the youthful mind towards real detective work. When there is nothing to fear for an honest man there is nothing to conceal and mutual suspicion is not engendered. Englishmen learn to trust each other until the 'word of an Englishman' is used as the sealing of a faithful bargain among Oriental and savage tribes very far afield.

                    The system in vogue on the Continent has led to a different form of thought; there is a general system of Government espionage which stamps the mind of the people with mutual distrust and which is reflected in the schools and institutions. Young people grow up to distrust and watch each other and there is a natural detective system thus established. Moreover, the powers of the police are immensely in excess of anything which obtains in this country. Here the constable in cases of felony has scarcely more power than any other citizen--across the Channel the police are masters of the situation the public gave way before them and the press does not venture to discuss their operations, to embarrass and hinder their enquiries, or to publish their results ; though on the other hand there is a distinct and serious loss to the community, police included from the absence of a free press.

                    On the other hand, Englishmen possess pre-eminently qualities which are essential to good detective work, such as dogged pertinacity in watching. thoroughness of purpose, an absence of imagination and downright sterling honesty. These qualities go far to counteract the wants before enumerated.

                    Probably also the Englishman is yet more wanting in originality than his Continental neighbour, but this is a quality which is very sparingly bestowed on human beings though it can be cultivated if a germ exists. On the whole it may be expected that for all ordinary services the Englishman among his country-men is as likely to make as good a detective as a Frenchman among the French. But for abnormal services as for those among bodies of foreigners living together in London probably some special measures should be adopted.
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                    • #11
                      Page Ten

                      The proof, however, of the London detective's value can only be tested by the results and as the results are due to both uniform and plain clothes police, it is fair to credit to each a due portion of the success attained. One hundred years ago, under a disjointed parish police service, London is said to have been more disorderly and worse policed than any city in Europe.; it has now under a centralised police force taken the first place among European cities. in regard to order and absence of crime and this with a very moderate number of police offcers. During the past year principal officers of police from the most important cities of the world have come to London to study our police organization and to endeavour to ascertain how we are enabled to detect crime. Heavy crimes have been diminishing in the Metropolis year by year so that even within the official lives of many police officers a marked improvement has taken place.

                      In 1797 the estimated number of persons supposed to support themselves by pursuits either criminally illegal or immoral amounted to 115,000 in a population of 1,250,000 or nearly ten per cent. It is difficult to realize what would be the condition of London at the present day were there now be such a percentage.

                      With regard to murder, the detection of the criminal has been made so generally sure that this crime seldom occurs unless under abnormal circumstances. And it is this very fact which leads the public to suppose that the power of detection is declining. It will probably be allowed in the abstract that with a perfect system of detection no cases of murder are likely to occur except of such a character that they could not be detected without a considerable enquiry ; and therefore the statistics would how a preponderance of undetected murders, although the proportion per 1000 would be at a minimum.

                      One of the modern difficulties the police have to contend with is the return to London of the hardened criminal class after short terms of imprisonment ; in former days these persons remained away for years, but now they are constantly returning.
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                      • #12
                        Page Eleven

                        It is merely a mathematical calculation what is the increased percentage of criminals who are now swarming in parts of London owing to short sentences and it may be readily surmisedv to how great an extent they endanger the peace of the community and increase the expenses of the police.

                        If London had the power of refusing to admit within the Metropolitan Police District all persons who had been convicted two or even three times of heavy crimes, such as burglary and house breaking, it is pretty certain that the number of police could be greatly reduced and houses would be seldom broken into.

                        It has been a rule in the Metropolitan Police to give very little information to the public as to the Criminal Investigation branch and in consequence many remarkable accounts have been given to the world which have not been contradicted. And so long as the stories did no harm little importance was attached to them. Recently, however, stories have been circulated having a mischievous tendency as likely to encourage thieves and criminals, and it may serve a good purpose to contradict them. In joining the detective force there is no hard and fast rule as to height , physique, age, & etc, as in the uniform branch ; any eligible candidate can be selected by the Commissioner and it is not necessary for him to serve previously as a uniform constable. Any suitable person can be taken on. It is assumed by the public that because they may think they know the appearance of a constable in plain clothes that therefore they know all the detectives in the neighborhood. A remark made a short time ago by the Commissioner to one who complained that all the detectives were known is applicable ; "You know all you know, but you do not know those you do not know." The public do not know the detectives as a body and frequently erroneously assume that they are not present when they are beside them.
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                        • #13
                          Page Twelve

                          The detective staff is, however, a mere small percentage of the uniform branch and whatever the public may think it must be openly and unequivocally stated that the peace and good order of the Metropolis and the prevention of crime depends upon the uniform branch and that the first and most essential point in a force of 14,000 men is administration and discipline. All other matters are subsidiary and it has already been pointed out that one hundred years ago the police of the Metropolis utterly failed, not because they could not detect crime, but because they were an undisciplined rabble attached to the various parishes and constantly at variance with each other.

                          It might be possible for a small force of constables in a small town to keep order and prevent crime without discipline, but with a large force of 14, 000 men, all would be chaos and confusion without it. With a large force, the higher the discipline the fewer constables are required, and a very small alteration in discipline may make from 5 to10 per cent difference in the value of the services of the men. In other words, with 14,000, a moderate increase or decrease in the discipline may occasion an increase or decrease of 1,000 men. It must not be supposed that because administration and discipline are put in the foreground--other most important matters, such as detective work, are ignored ; but it cannot be too strongly enforced on the attention of constables and citizens that they, under the law, are the true detectives, and nothing should be said or done that will tend to relieve them of this responsibility.

                          The value of the detective branch itself is but a drop in the ocean for all the myriads of common-place offences which might readily into serious crime if not looked after by the uniform police and by citizens.

                          In carrying out his administrative duties the "Commissioner, subject to the approbation of one of the Secretaries of State, passes such orders and regulations as he shall deem expedient relative to the general government of the men to be appointed members of the Police Force ; the places of their residences, the classification, rank, and particular service of the several members ; their distribution and inspections ; the description of arms, accoutrements and other necessaries to be furnished to them ; and which of them shall be provided with horses for the performance of their duties ; and all other such orders and regulations relative to the said Police Force, as the said Commissioner shall from time to time deem expedient for preventing neglect or abuse, and for rendering such force efficient in the discharge of all its duties."
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                          • #14
                            Page Thirteen

                            During the past two years the Police Orders in connection with administration promulgated in 1873, have been consolidated with those published from time to time during the succeeding fifteen years and have now been issued to the Police Force for use and trial previous to final correction. This has tended immensely to assist Police administration, as now the whole of the orders on such subjects can be found in sequence without difficulty, while previously there was not an officer in the force who could say accurately what the orders on any particular subject were. This has been a matter of very great labour as the varying duties of the force throughout the Metropolis require the closest attention to the necessities of a variety of cases.

                            The system to be adopted in enrolling candidates has a most vital effect on the Police Force and during the last two years a variety of minor improvements have been effected.

                            One of the most glaring defects was that of having an enormous list of candidates on the books waiting for several months by which system the best often got employment elsewhere before their turn cam round and the Police Force lost their services. The endeavour has been to have a very small list of the most eligible candidates who should be kept waiting at most but a few weeks. With this in view a considerable amount of weeding out has been adopted. There is now a preliminary medical examination outside London to enable candidates to at once ascertain whether they are likely to pass the examination of the Chief Surgeon. The Chief Surgeon's examination has been made more strict so that a more enduring class of men are passed through. The standard height has been raised from 5 ft. 8 1/2 in. to 5 ft. 9 and the age reduced to 27. An educational test has also been established. There is, however, no hard and fast rule in cases where the exigencies of the police service require a man with some special qualifications.
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                            • #15
                              Page Fourteen

                              After the passing of the candidate, he proceeds to the Candidates Section House which has recently been established where he remains from fourteen to eighteen days learning his police duties and drill ; he also receives a complete course of lectures in rendering first aid to the sick and injured.

                              Formerly the candidate was located in lodgings about the town and his course consisted almost entirely of drill only. A book of instructions for candidates in police duties has been printed with a copy of which he is furnished ; and he is required to pass an examination in this before he can be enrolled as a police-constable. On being sworn in, he is posted to a division where he learns his duties by attendance at a police court and in other was for fourteen days, before he accompanies an experienced constable for duty on a beat. The training of these young constables in this manner has often led to the assertion that the police officers are now working in the streets in couples.

                              It is necessary that the constable, after he is once appointed, should keep up sufficient knowledge of drill to enable him to march in file from one street to another or to form up quickly in times of procession and fete days in order to line the streets.

                              This drill occupies one hour per week ( on pay days ) during the summer months or other warm warm weather and is knocked off in very hot or very cold or wet weather, or when there is special business. The result is that in the September quarter, which is the quarter in which there is most drill, there were eight drill days on the average, with an average of 3,500 men attending. This is the equivalent to two hours drill per man per quarter. And taking into consideration the lesser amount of drill during the other quarters, the average is about six hours drill per annum.
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